**Version info: **Code for this page was tested in Stata 12.

Probit regression, also called a probit model, is used to model dichotomous or binary outcome variables. In the probit model, the inverse standard normal distribution of the probability is modeled as a linear combination of the predictors.

**Please Note:** The purpose of this page is to show how to use various data analysis commands.
It does not cover all aspects of the research process which researchers are expected to do. In
particular, it does not cover data cleaning and checking, verification of assumptions, model
diagnostics and potential follow-up analyses.

## Examples of probit regression

Example 1: Suppose that we are interested in the factors that influence whether a political candidate wins an election. The outcome (response) variable is binary (0/1); win or lose. The predictor variables of interest are the amount of money spent on the campaign, the amount of time spent campaigning negatively and whether the candidate is an incumbent.

Example 2: A researcher is interested in how variables, such as GRE (Graduate Record Exam scores), GPA (grade point average) and prestige of the undergraduate institution, effect admission into graduate school. The response variable, admit/don’t admit, is a binary variable.

## Description of the data

For our data analysis below, we are going to expand on Example 2 about getting into graduate school. We have generated hypothetical data, which can be obtained from our website.

use http://www.ats.ucla.edu/stat/stata/dae/binary.dta, clear

This data set has a binary response (outcome, dependent) variable called **admit**.

There are three predictor

variables: **gre**, **gpa** and **rank**. We will treat the
variables **gre** and **gpa** as continuous. The variable **rank** is
ordinal, it takes on the
values 1 through 4. Institutions with a rank of 1 have the highest prestige,
while those with a rank of 4 have the lowest. We will treat **rank** as
categorical.

summarize gre gpaVariable | Obs Mean Std. Dev. Min Max -------------+-------------------------------------------------------- gre | 400 587.7 115.5165 220 800 gpa | 400 3.3899 .3805668 2.26 4tab rankrank | Freq. Percent Cum. ------------+----------------------------------- 1 | 61 15.25 15.25 2 | 151 37.75 53.00 3 | 121 30.25 83.25 4 | 67 16.75 100.00 ------------+----------------------------------- Total | 400 100.00tab admitadmit | Freq. Percent Cum. ------------+----------------------------------- 0 | 273 68.25 68.25 1 | 127 31.75 100.00 ------------+----------------------------------- Total | 400 100.00tab admit rank| rank admit | 1 2 3 4 | Total -----------+--------------------------------------------+---------- 0 | 28 97 93 55 | 273 1 | 33 54 28 12 | 127 -----------+--------------------------------------------+---------- Total | 61 151 121 67 | 400

## Analysis methods you might consider

Below is a list of some analysis methods you may have encountered. Some of the methods listed are quite reasonable while others have either fallen out of favor or have limitations.

- Probit regression, the focus of this page.
- Logistic regression. A logit model will produce results similar
probit regression. The choice of probit versus logit depends largely on

individual preferences.

- OLS regression. When used with a binary response variable, this model is known
as a linear probability model and can be used as a way to

describe conditional probabilities. However, the errors (i.e., residuals) from the linear probability model violate the homoskedasticity and

normality of errors assumptions of OLS

regression, resulting in invalid standard errors and hypothesis tests. For

a more thorough discussion of these and other problems with the linear

probability model, see Long (1997, p. 38-40).

- Two-group discriminant function analysis. A multivariate method for dichotomous outcome variables.
- Hotelling’s T
^{2}. The 0/1 outcome is turned into thegrouping variable, and the former predictors are turned into outcome

variables. This will produce an overall test of significance but will not

give individual coefficients for each variable, and it is unclear the extent

to which each "predictor" is adjusted for the impact of the other

"predictors."

## Probit regression

Below we use the **probit** command to estimate a probit regression model.
The **i.** before **rank** indicates that **rank** is a factor variable (i.e.,
categorical variable), and that it should be included in the model as a series of
indicator variables. Note that this syntax was introduced in Stata 11.

probit admit gre gpa i.rankIteration 0: log likelihood = -249.98826 Iteration 1: log likelihood = -229.29667 Iteration 2: log likelihood = -229.20659 Iteration 3: log likelihood = -229.20658 Probit regression Number of obs = 400 LR chi2(5) = 41.56 Prob > chi2 = 0.0000 Log likelihood = -229.20658 Pseudo R2 = 0.0831 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ admit | Coef. Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval] -------------+---------------------------------------------------------------- gre | .0013756 .0006489 2.12 0.034 .0001038 .0026473 gpa | .4777302 .1954625 2.44 0.015 .0946308 .8608297 | rank | 2 | -.4153992 .1953769 -2.13 0.033 -.7983308 -.0324675 3 | -.812138 .2085956 -3.89 0.000 -1.220978 -.4032981 4 | -.935899 .2456339 -3.81 0.000 -1.417333 -.4544654 | _cons | -2.386838 .6740879 -3.54 0.000 -3.708026 -1.065649 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

- In the output above, we first see the iteration log, indicating how quickly
the model converged. The log likelihood (-229.20658) can be used
in comparisons of nested models, but we won’t show an example of that here.

- Also at the top of the output we see that all 400 observations in our data set
were used in the analysis (fewer observations would have been used if any

of our variables had missing values).

- The likelihood ratio chi-square of 41.56 with a p-value of 0.0001 tells us that our model as a whole is statistically significant, that is, it fits significantly better than a model with no predictors.
- In the table we see the coefficients, their standard errors, the z-statistic,
associated p-values, and the 95% confidence interval of the coefficients. Both
**gre**,**gpa**, and the three indicator variables for**rank**are statistically significant. The probit regression coefficients give the change in the z-score or probit index for a one unit change in the predictor.- For a one unit increase in
**gre**, the z-score increases by 0.001. - For each one unit increase in
**gpa**, the z-score increases by 0.478. - The indicator variables for
**rank**have a slightly different interpretation. For example, having attended an undergraduate institution of**rank**of 2, versus an institution with a**rank**of 1 (the reference group), decreases the z-score by 0.415.

- For a one unit increase in

We can test for an overall effect of **rank**
using the **test** command. Below we see that the overall effect of **rank** is
statistically significant.

test 2.rank 3.rank 4.rank( 1) [admit]2.rank = 0 ( 2) [admit]3.rank = 0 ( 3) [admit]4.rank = 0 chi2( 3) = 21.32 Prob > chi2 = 0.0001

We can also test additional hypotheses about the differences in the
coefficients for different levels of rank. Below we
test that the coefficient for **rank**=2 is equal to the coefficient for **rank**=3.

test 2.rank = 3.rank( 1) [admit]2.rank - [admit]3.rank = 0 chi2( 1) = 5.60 Prob > chi2 = 0.0179

You can also use predicted probabilities to help you understand the model.
You can calculate predicted probabilities using the **margins** command,
which was
introduced in Stata 11. Below we use the **margins** command to calculate the
predicted probability of admission at each level of **rank**, holding all
other variables in the model at their means. For more information on using the **margins**
command to calculate predicted probabilities, see our page
Using margins for predicted probabilities.

margins rank, atmeansAdjusted predictions Number of obs = 400 Model VCE : OIM Expression : Pr(admit), predict() at : gre = 587.7 (mean) gpa = 3.3899 (mean) 1.rank = .1525 (mean) 2.rank = .3775 (mean) 3.rank = .3025 (mean) 4.rank = .1675 (mean) ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Delta-method | Margin Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval] -------------+---------------------------------------------------------------- rank | 1 | .5163741 .0656201 7.87 0.000 .3877611 .6449871 2 | .3540742 .0394725 8.97 0.000 .2767096 .4314388 3 | .2203289 .0383674 5.74 0.000 .1451302 .2955277 4 | .1854353 .0487112 3.81 0.000 .0899631 .2809075 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the above output we see that the predicted probability of being accepted into a
graduate program is 0.52 for the highest prestige undergraduate institutions (rank=1),
and 0.19 for the lowest ranked institutions (rank=4), holding **gre** and **gpa** at their means.

Below we generate the predicted probabilities for values of **gre** from
200 to 800 in increments of 100. Because we have not specified either **atmeans**
or used **at(**…**)** to specify values at which the other predictor
variables are held, the values in the table are average predicted probabilities
calculated using the sample values of the other
predictor variables. For example, to calculate the average predicted probability
when **gre** = 200, the predicted probability was calculated for each case,
using that case’s value of **rank** and **gpa**,
and setting **gre** to 200.

margins , at(gre=(200(100)800)) vsquishPredictive margins Number of obs = 400 Model VCE : OIM Expression : Pr(admit), predict() 1._at : gre = 200 2._at : gre = 300 3._at : gre = 400 4._at : gre = 500 5._at : gre = 600 6._at : gre = 700 7._at : gre = 800 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------ | Delta-method | Margin Std. Err. z P>|z| [95% Conf. Interval] -------------+---------------------------------------------------------------- _at | 1 | .1621325 .0621895 2.61 0.009 .0402434 .2840216 2 | .1956415 .053758 3.64 0.000 .0902777 .3010054 3 | .2330607 .0422138 5.52 0.000 .1503231 .3157983 4 | .2741667 .0293439 9.34 0.000 .2166537 .3316797 5 | .3185876 .0226349 14.08 0.000 .2742239 .3629512 6 | .365808 .0333436 10.97 0.000 .3004557 .4311603 7 | .4151847 .0541532 7.67 0.000 .3090463 .5213231 ------------------------------------------------------------------------------

In the table above we can see that the mean predicted probability of being accepted
is only 0.16 if one’s **GRE** score is 200 and increases to 0.42 if one’s GRE score is 800
(averaging across the sample values of **gpa** and **rank**).

It can also be helpful to use graphs of predicted probabilities to understand and/or present the model.

We may also wish to see measures of how well our model fits. This can be particularly useful when comparing
competing models. The user-written command **fitstat** produces a
variety of fit statistics. You can find more information on **fitstat** by typing
**search fitstat** (see
How can I use the search command to search for programs and get additional help?
for more information about using **search**).

fitstatMeasures of Fit for probit of admit Log-Lik Intercept Only: -249.988 Log-Lik Full Model: -229.207 D(393): 458.413 LR(5): 41.563 Prob > LR: 0.000 McFadden's R2: 0.083 McFadden's Adj R2: 0.055 ML (Cox-Snell) R2: 0.099 Cragg-Uhler(Nagelkerke) R2: 0.138 McKelvey & Zavoina's R2: 0.165 Efron's R2: 0.101 Variance of y*: 1.197 Variance of error: 1.000 Count R2: 0.710 Adj Count R2: 0.087 AIC: 1.181 AIC*n: 472.413 BIC: -1896.232 BIC': -11.606 BIC used by Stata: 494.362 AIC used by Stata: 470.413

## Things to consider

- Empty cells or small cells: You should check for empty or small
cells by doing a crosstab between categorical predictors and the outcome variable. If a cell has very few cases (a small cell), the model may become unstable or it might not run at all.

- Separation or quasi-separation (also called perfect prediction), a condition in which the outcome does not vary at some levels of the independent variables. See our page FAQ: What is complete or quasi-complete separation in logistic/probit regression and how do we deal with them? for information on models with perfect prediction.
- Sample size: Both probit and logit models require more cases than OLS
regression because they use maximum likelihood estimation techniques. It is
sometimes possible to estimate models for binary outcomes in datasets with
only a small number of cases using exact logistic regression (using the
**exlogistic**command). For more information see our data analysis example for exact logistic regression. It is also important to keep in mind that when the outcome is rare, even if the overall dataset is large, it can be difficult to estimate a probit model. - Pseudo-R-squared: Many different measures of psuedo-R-squared exist. They all attempt to provide information similar to that provided by R-squared in OLS regression; however, none of them can be interpreted exactly as R-squared in OLS regression is interpreted. For a discussion of various pseudo-R-squareds see Long and Freese (2006) or our FAQ page What are pseudo R-squareds?
- In Stata, values of 0 are treated as one level of the outcome variable,
and all other non-missing values are treated as the second level of the outcome.

- Diagnostics: The diagnostics for probit regression are different from those for OLS regression. The diagnostics for probit models are similar to those for logit models. For a discussion of model diagnostics for logistic regression, see Hosmer and Lemeshow (2000, Chapter 5).

## See also

- Stata help for probit
- Annotated output for the probit command
- Stat Books for Loan, Logistic Regression and Limited Dependent Variables

## References

- Hosmer, D. & Lemeshow, S. (2000). Applied Logistic Regression (Second Edition). New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
- Long, J. Scott (1997). Regression Models for Categorical and Limited Dependent Variables. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.